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Special paper for third semester M.Sc Physics students under University of Kerala.

This paper is divided into three sessions

Session 1 gives you the general classifications of functional materials and the imperfections in crystals

Session 2  is aims  on the formation of various crystals and experimental techniques for the same.

The Third session focuses on the growth of thin films by various physical and chemical methods also give an overview of basic theories behind thin films growth.over view of thin films

Bohr's theory - Sommerfeld's Relativistic atom model - Drawbacks of Bohr model and Relativistic atom model - The Vector Atom Model - Coupling schemes -  Pauli's exclusion principle - Spin orbit coupling

Atomic Spectra

Optical spectra - Zeeman effect - Larmor’s theorem - Anomalous Zeeman effect - Paschen-Back effect - Stark effect

Molecular rotational spectroscopy 

Classification of molecules-rotational spectra of diatomic molecules-isotope effect and intensity of rotational lines-non rigid rotator-linear polyatomic molecules-symmetric and asymmetric top molecules-microwave spectrometer-analysis of rotational spectra. 

IR spectroscopy

Vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules-characteristic IR spectra-vibrations of polyatomic molecules- anharmonicity- Fermi resonance-hydrogen bonding-normal modes of vibration in a crystal- interpretation of vibrational spectra- IR spectrometer- Fourier transform IR spectroscopy 

Electronic spectra of molecules 

Vibrational coarse structure and analysis of bound systems- Deslanders table-Frank-Condon principle-vibrational electronic spectra-rotational fine structure- Fortrat parabola-electronic angular momentum in diatomic molecules

This module covers Field Effect Transistors, UJT., Modulation and Demodulation, Feedback Amplifiers and Operational Amplifiers for BSc students

This course introduces the theories behind the origin of the Universe, Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Modern Astronomical events, Evolution and Life Cycle of Stars, Galaxies and Solar SystemThe story of the Universe

The Active Sun, Different Layers of the Sun, Magnetosphere

Module-1:Sources of Energy and Classification

  •  To learn the fundamentals of energy sources and applications
  • Understand the importance of non-conventional energy sources

Module-2: Wind Energy

  •   Understand basic principles of wind energy conversion

This course introduces the computer fundamentals-Computer generations,Computer organization, Memory Organisation, I/O devices, Operating Systems, Network Topologies, Data Communication and  Internet Protocols

Elective course for 4th Semester M.Sc Physics students

This course will give an over view of Nano science and Nanotechnology.

First section will give a brief intorduciton to Nanostrucutres

Quantum mechanical aspects will be discussed in section two

Fascinating world of carbon is described soon

Over view of various growth techniques are embed in another section

The fast developing applications of nanotechnology is described in modules seven

Various characterization tools also described here


Describe the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and Understand the basic aspects of nuclear structure


Understand the fundamentals of radioactivity


Describe the different types of nuclear forces.


Describe the principle and working of particle detectors


(Common for all complementary subjects)


List of Experiments (Minimum 18 experiments to be done)

1. Torsion Pendulum- n by torsional oscillations

2.Torsion Pendulum- n and I using equal masses

3.Fly Wheel

4. Cantilever- Y by pin and microscope method

5.Uniform bending- Y by pin and microscope

6.Symmetric bar pendulum - g and radius of gyration

7. Surface tension- capillary rise method

8. Coefficient of viscosity- capillary flow method

9. Lee’s disc- Thermal conductivity of cardboard

10. Method of parallax- optical constants of convex lens using

i) mirror and mercury ii) mirror and water

11. Method of parallax- refractive index of liquid.

12.Spectrometer- A, D and n

13.Spectrometer- dispersive power of a prism

14.Spectrometer- Grating-normal incidence

15.Deflection and vibration magnetometer- M and Bh

16.Circular coil- magnetization of a magnet

17.Carey Foster’s bridge - Resistivity

18.Potentiometer- Resistivity

19.Potentiometer- Calibration of ammeter

20.Diode Characteristics (for Ge and Si diodes)

21.Half wave rectifier-Measurement of ripple factor with and without filter capacitor

22. Full wave rectifier- Measurement of ripple factor with and without filter capacitor

This course introduces the programming language C++

C++ flow control, conditional statements, Iterative statements, Switch statements, Conditional operators, Functions-built-in and User defined, Structures, Arrays, Classes and Objects

Basics of Python programming,Object oriented programming-python numbers, variables, strings, lists, tuples, decision making, functions and file management

Quantum statistical mechanics is the study of probability potentials of individual particles as well as bulk properties. In both areas of statistical mechanics the correct counting of the degeneracy of states cannot be understated.
Basics understanding of Bosons, Fermions,Description of various statistics F-D, M-B and B-E, Black body Radiation, Phase Transitions

This module covers the Relativistic Approach to Schroedinger equation. The Klein Gordon Equation, its Interpretation and application to particle n a Coulomb field, the Dirac equation, its plane wave solution, the Dirac Matrices, the existence of negative energy states, the spin of the Dirac particle and it application to Hydrogen atom are discussed

Course Objectives is to understand the following concepts

  • Research methodology
  • Measurements in research
  • Significance and limitations of experimentation in research
  • Formulate a research project, ethics and responsibility of scientific research

Statistical Physics 

Statistical probability, Macro and Micro states, Phase space, Statistical ensemble, Postulate of equal probability, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution, Velocity distribution. Indistinguishability of identical particles, Bose Einstein and Fermi Dirac distribution function, comparison of three statistics 

Transient currents

Growth and decay of current in LR and CR Circuits-Measurement of high resistance by leakage-Charging and discharging of a capacitor through LCR circuit.

This course is designed to get an in-depth knowledge microbial genetics and microbial diseases. This knowledge is very important as far as Biotechnology is concerned.

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary branch of science that applies the theories and methods of physics to understand how biological systems work. This course is aimed to make the students understand the fundamentals of biophysics.

Bioinstrumentation involves the application of engineering tools for scientific discovery in living systems. This course is intended to introduce the principle and working of various instruments used in the field of biotechnology, such as Colorimeter, Spectrophotometer (UV/Vis Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry and Fluorimetry), Flow Cytometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Immunoelectrophoresis and Isoelectric Focusing.

This course is for Biotechnology students. Students from other disciplines can also undergo this course to get a basic knowledge in the application of Biotechnology in food processing, food spoilage, food preservation and dairy industry.

Ribonucleic acid or RNA is the polymer of ribonucleotides. These molecules are essential  in biological roles such as coding,decoding,regulation and expression of genes.This course focuses on the properties,structure and functions of different types of RNAs.

Course Outcomes:

Students will be able to describe and explain the physical and chemical principles that underlie molecular structure determination techniques like NMR, ESR, Mossbauer, NQR and PES spectroscopy

Within chemistry, symmetry is important both at a molecular level and within crystalline systems, and an understanding of symmetry is essential in discussions of molecular spectroscopy and calculations of molecular properties. Group theory is the mathematical treatment of symmetry.

This course gives an introduction to the fundamental language of group theory and is divided into two portions

1. Symmetry elements and Symmetry Operations

2. Point Groups

The course includes:

Acidimetry and Alkalimetry, Permanganometry, Dichrometry, Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Precipitation titration and Complexometry.

Course Outcomes:
1. Estimation of simple mixture of ions (involving quantitative separation) by volumetric and Gravimetric methods.
2. Analysis of typical alloys and ores
3. Ion exchange separation of binary mixtures.
4. Spectral Interpretation of metal complexes using IR, UV-Vis. spectral data. Supplementary information like metal estimation, CHN analysis, conductivity measurements and magnetic measurements to be provided to the students. Assessment is based on arriving at the structure of the complex and assignment of IR spectral bands.

5. Interpretation of TG and DTA curves of metal oxalate hydrates. Assessment is based on the identification of various stages.

The course focuses on the classification of polymers and terpenes. It also gives an elementary idea on terpenoids such as citral and geraniol; and synthetic rubbers.


The course focuses on the preparation, properties and uses of Carboxylic acids, Sulphonic acids and their derivatives.
Course Outcome

To apply quantum mechanical principles in solving both real and imaginary spherical harmonics systems-multi electron systems.

quantum chemistry

Separation Techniques | Paper Chromatography - YouTube

This course gives an introductory idea about different types of chromatographic techniques

Course Outcomes
1. To classify amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids

2. To discuss the synthesis of amino acids and peptides

Analytical Chemistry

This course focuses on the analysis of Biological Fluids, Enzymes, Drugs and Alcoholic Beverages.

Method of polymerization describes the major polymerization techniques. It also discusses the synthesis,properties and applications of some industrially important polymers.


 What Is a Polymer?

Food and Forensic Analysis course aims to explain the principles and significance of forensic analysis and also a diverse investigation on development, application and study of analytical procedures for characterizing the properties of food materials.


This course focuses on different methods of  plant propagation 

Plant Propagation

This course is designed for mathematics students. It consists of Python programs which can solve or generate solutions of Mathematical problems or equations through basic Python coding. 

Fish are an important natural resource. They provide food for billions of people around the world and considered as the largest source of protein. This topic ‘Common Food Fishes of Kerala’ includes description of major marine, brackish and fresh water fishes of Kerala which are commonly consumed in Kerala.

This module covers the general characteristics and classification of Class Amphibia.

This module covers the Development of Chick: 

  • Cleavage
  • Blastulation 
  • Gastrulation 
  • 24 hrs chick embryo 
  • Development of extra-embryonic membranes in chick

Development of Chick

This module covers the classification of Phylum Chordata, Subphylums-Urochordata, Cephalochordata and vertebrata

This module covers the various BSc level Physics Experiments in Optics, Electricity, Magnetism, Electronics and Computer Science

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